The Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. In the end, all parties recognized the need to „prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,” but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to warming mitigation.  There is no mechanism for a country to set an emission target for a specified date, but any target should go beyond the previous targets. The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration.  Since 2011, the main objective of the climate negotiations has been to establish a legal framework that would incorporate or link the national reduction targets to the other elements that will form the Paris Agreement. These negotiations take place within the framework of the UNFCCC body, known as the Durban Mandate ad Hoc Group (ADP). The mandate of climate negotiators is to „develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed-upon outcome that has the force of law under the agreement applicable to all contracting parties.” But unlike the Copenhagen climate change summit, the most dramatic failure of international climate diplomacy to date, the confidence and legitimacy of this process is much better. It therefore seems very likely that an agreement will be signed in Paris and, if one looks through the political fog, it is indeed possible to see the contours of the climate agreement in its origin. This is simply because the INDCs are the result of hard-won national compromises that balance social, economic and environmental interests. In some cases, where the EU is the most obvious example, the reduction target is adopted through a complex internal negotiation process.
Changing the EU`s current emissions reduction target, which aims to reduce emissions by 40% by 2030 from 1990 levels, requires unanimous agreement from all 28 Member States.